DISCOVERING PRIVATE DISCLOSURES
"Two doctors were deep in conversation, trying to decide whether it would be best for their patient to remove one or two lobes of his lung. Their intentions were good but their supposedly private conference had an uncomfortable captive audience: an elevator filled with people, including the patient's wife." (Tribune, July 4, 1995). In another case, "a man with AIDS is suing a drugstore chain, claiming his children found out about his illness after a pharmacy clerk who handled his prescription disclosed it to her teenage son" who went to the same school as the AIDS victim's children (Republic, Jan. 8, 1998).
From a US perspective, the common thread throughout these examples is the frustration with not being able to maintain control over information that individuals believe belong to them. People struggle with the duality of needing both a private life and public one. Close personal relationships with others are difficult to accomplish without revealing intimate details of an individual's life. Yet, people in the US, if not elsewhere, take risks everyday by revealing their privacy in order to have those relationships. People generally are careful to whom they tell, how they make decisions concerning when, how, and the extent to which they tell others about themselves. Yet, private lives become public with and without an individual's consent. In the US, headlines scream that "Americans' privacy is in shreds," and polls tell us that people have resigned themselves to accepting a loss of privacy. To have a more comprehensive grasp on the way privacy regulation works in the US and worldwide, it is useful to have a theoretical framework from which to explore how people cope with privacy choices.
Communication Privacy Management (Petronio, 2002) is an applied theory that proposes a compass to understand the way individuals make decisions about when to reveal and when to conceal private information. The theory presumes that disclosure and privacy are in dialectical tension and consequently, judgments people make rest on balancing degrees of each. Using a metaphoric boundary, CPM identifies both a personal boundary protecting personal information and a collective boundary around private information that is shared with others. The boundary helps underscore the assumption that private information is defined as something a person owns and expects to control. People regulate multiple boundaries around different kinds of private information. In other words, people manage personally private information they manage, dyadic information that is created when one people discloses to another, private information that groups own, and private information that belongs to families or organizations as a whole. When the boundaries protect information that is the responsibility of dyads, groups, and families, coordinated action is needed to agree on mutually held rules use to control the flow of information. These rules regulate the informational current to others.
Problems arise when the needed level of coordination is lacking. For example, one person could believe that private information really belongs to him or her, while others in the boundary think that the information is collectively held and not under the purview of one person. In another instance, someone might think that they are being deceived is a relational partner is not willing to share private information. Others may believe they have a right to know the private information because it is defined as belonging to the group and not consider the property of just one individual. Because there are many situations that illustrate the difficulty each person has with managing privacy information, this talk explains the way that people regulate this information in an everyday world through the lens of Communication Privacy Management theory. As the discussion above suggests, sometimes people have many choices about revealing and concealing. At other times, family member, friends, colleagues, or even enemies make the choices for us because they have been privy to the information. The theory of Communication Privacy Management helps individuals to understand how people make decisions to disclosure private information and the part others play in the revealing and concealing of that information.
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About the author:
Indiana University Center for Bioethics
Indiana University School of Nursing
Indiana University-Purdue University, Indianapolis Indiana
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